Stories from Indian Mythology

Saturday, February 23, 2013

The Five Questions of King Adhrit and Queen Mihika

Once upon a time long before Lord Ram cleansed the world of asurs and saved it from Ravan's atrocities, in the kingdom of Bharatvarsh, ruled the great king Adhrit and his queen Mihika. Both were just and wise and were greatly loved by their people. Bharatvarsh had the largest army in the known world and king Adhrit was considered the most powerful ruler of his times. Emissaries from kingdoms all over the world used to come to his court to pay homage. Stories of queen Mihika's beauty and wit were known to one and all. She was said to have the the largest collection of ornaments and jewellery with rooms filled with gold, rubies, diamonds and other precious gems.

However despite all the wealth, power, pleasure and grandeur available at their doorsteps, neither king Adhrit nor queen Mihika were satisfied with their lives and were filled with self doubt and uncertainty about their conduct, actions and life's outcomes.

One day, news came to the court of the presence of Brahmarishi Agastha in the forests near the capital. Rishi Agastha had descended from his abode in the Himalayas at the behest of Lord Shiva and was travelling south. Both the king and the queen immediately rushed to meet the great sage. Having heard their mental duress Agastha said, " King Adhrit and Queen Mihika, your worries and problems are the same that every human being faces sometime in his life. I grant you the right to any five questions that you desire an answer to to assuage your curiosity. In return, you must ensure that these answers are passed on to others who seek them in various forms."

The king and the queen sat together and for seven days and seven nights discussed what would be the most relevant five questions to ask. In the end they went back to Rishi Agastha and had the following five questions.

King Adhrit: " O Great Agastha, why am I here?"
Rishi Agastha: "Great king of Bharatvarsha, you are here by chance. There is no pre-defined purpose for your life. You are free to chose the way you want it to be. You are here and you won't be tomorrow. That is all that there is."

King Adhrit: "O divine guru, what do I desire most while I am here?"
Rishi Agastha: "Raje, every man has one and only one desire in life. All other desires, be it wealth, power, knowledge or glory, find birth from this one basic need. If you focus your thoughts inward and peel away layer after layer of your longings you will find this irremovable need in the core. And this desire is called happiness.  All we seek in life, all we aspire for in the end is to be happy."

Queen Mihika: "O wise one, what is my greatest strength and what is my biggest weakness?"
Bramharishi Agastha: "Your greatest strength is doubt, and so is your greatest weakness. It depends on how you wield it. Doubts about right and wrong, existence or the perfectness of the current state of being  are self improving and strengthen our mind and body. All the changes in the world are brought about because someone somewhere doubted the unrivaled nature of the present state. However, if the same doubt creates hesitance in karma, leading to a stagnation of thoughts and actions, then it becomes one's biggest weakness."

Queen Mihika: "O cleanser of cosmic ocean, how would I know if my life is a success?"
Agastha: "O queen, you will not know if your life is successful. It is only those who remain after your passing or come after it can judge the success of your life. All you can do is to lead it in such a way that its ending brings joy to none."

"O bramharishi, does God exist?"
Bramharishi Agastha: "It does not matter. If you believe, anything and everything can be divine. You can see divinity in flowing rivers, blooming flowers, in effervescent life and even in stationary rocks. If you don't, everything in this world can be explained through logic, reasoning and thought. However, you beliefs or disbelief will in no way impact the outcomes of your life. They will solely depend upon the way you conduct it."

Receiving these answers, the king and queen felt as if a great burden had been removed from their minds and a sense of satisfaction settled on their consciousness.  Content at last, both bowed their heads to the great sage and returned to their kingdom.

Sunday, March 25, 2012

The Birth of Ganesh

Ganesh Mahotsav in India
Ganesh is said o be the most worshiped god in India. As the lord of all successful beginnings, he is worshiped by devotees of other Hindu deities - Shiv, Vishnu and the Goddess. Ganesh is the son of Lord Shiv and Goddess Parvati. However, his birth in our Universe has one of the most strange beginnings. 

Let me tell that story today.

Nandi, Lord Shiv's Bull
In the human world, Lord Shiv and Parvati have their aboard in Mount Kailash in the Himalayas. Shiv was often away from this worldly aboard to help the Devs in their wars with the Asurs. In such times, he would leave behind Nandi, his faithful bull, to guard his home and Parvati. 

On one such day, Parvati was preparing to take her bath. As she didn’t want to be disturbed, she told Nandi to guard the door and let no one pass. Nandi faithfully took his post, and stood guard outside his master's home intending to carry out Parvati’s wishes. But, when Shiv came home and naturally wanted to come inside, Nandi had to let him pass, being loyal first to Shiv. Parvati was angry at this slight, but even more than this, at the fact that she had no one as loyal to Herself as Nandi was to Shiv. 

Shiv Returning with his Gana (Warriors)
So, when Shiv was away the next time and Parvati had to take a bath, she took a handful of saffron in her palm, added a little water to make a paste and created a clay like model of a child. Then from her breadth she blew life into this saffron figurine and thus was born Gahesh, her son. The child bowed before his mother and seeking her blessings asked her command. Parvati told Ganesh to guard the house while she was bathing and to let no one pass till she came out. So, taking a hefty stick in his hand, Ganesh stood guarding the door. As it so happened, Shiv returned with his army of followers at that very moment. Shiv strode ahead to meet Parvati while his followers settled themselves on Mount Kailash. However Ganesh, acting on Parvathi's orders verbatim, did not allow Shiv to enter the house. Shiv tried to reason with the young child saying he was the lord of the house, husband of Parvati. Ganesh would hear none of it and stood firmly between Shiv and the door. As Shiv's anger rose he sent his armymen to remove this tiny obstacle from his path. However Ganesh, with his stick, defeated and chased Shiv's well trained and battle hardened warriors one after the other. 

Seeing his warriors defeated by a small child, Shiv was both embarrassed and infuriated. He strode forward in anger and with his trishul (trident), cut off Ganesh's head in a single stroke. Such was Shiv's fury and the power of his trishul, that the severed head was knocked off beyond the realms of the Universe. The torso of dead Ganesh fell down on the ground at Shiv's feet. 

Painting Depicting Ganesh's Birth Story
Shiv Parvati and Ganesh
By this time Parvati had completed her bath and came out of the house hearing the commotion. Seeing her beloved child lying dead on the ground she was overcome by grief and anger. Seeing Parvati so grieved,Shiv's anger cooled off and he realized his mistake.  He sent out his army to look for Ganesh's head or to bring the head of the first creature that they could find. One of his warriors soon returned with the head of a strong and powerful elephant, which Shiv placed onto Ganesh’s body. Breathing new life into him, he declared Ganesh to be his own son as well. However Parvati was still not pacified, saying that with an elephant's head, who would worship Ganesh as a god. So Lord Shiv blessed the child, Ganesh that he will be the lord of beginning and people will worship him first before any other god in any kind of undertaking – PratamaPujya and empowered him on all his servants (gana) to be ever known as “Ganapati".

And so it came to be.

Wednesday, March 14, 2012

Samudra Manthan - the churning of the celestial ocean

In the early days of our universe, the devs (demigods) and asurs (demons) were in an eternal fight for superiority.The devs, led by Indra, their supreme commander, were gaining victories after victories over the asurs and were set to rule the universe. Our story begins then.

One day, Indra was roaming around in the celestial plane riding his elephant and came upon Durvasa muni (sage). Durvasa, the renowned muni, was wandering in a divine ecstasy and coming upon the dev took out a garland from his brow and gave it to Indra in the form of his blessings. Indra however was bloated up by hs recent victories over the asurs and instead of showing the due respect to the muni, paced the garland on the trunk of his elephant. Irritated by the floral smells, the elephant threw down the garland and trampled on it. Sage Durvasa was enraged by Indra's insult. 

Durvasa muni, who was born out of the anger of Lord Shiva, was renowned for his rage.  Brahma and Shiva once got into a heated quarrel. So violent was Shiva's rage as a result of this quarrel, that his consort, Parvati, complained that Shiva was now impossible to live with. Realising the disharmony his anger had caused, he decided to deposit this anger into Anasuya, the wife of sage Atri. From this portion of Shiva deposited into Anasuya, a child was born, who was named Durvasa (literally, one who is difficult to live with).

But coming back to our story....Slighted by Indra's behavior, Durvasa cursed Indra and all the devs to become poverty-stricken and bereft of all influence and strength and that their lives loose all auspiciousness. Afflicted by the muni's curse, the devs began floundering in their war with the asurs. Distressed by the declining fortunes of the devs, Indra prayed and appealed to Lord Vishnu for help. Vishnu advised the devs to join hands with the asurs and churn the milky ocean of the universe (Milky Way?) to obtain amrit (nectar of immortality) from its depths. 

With a promise to share the amrit with them, the devs were able to reconcile with the asurs to churn the great ocean. The samudra manthan (churning of the ocean) that ensued was an elaborate affair. The entire race of devs and asurs came together for the first time. Mount Mandarachal was used as the churning rod, and Vasuki, the king of serpents, became the churning rope. To demean the devs, the asurs demanded that they would hold the head of Vasuki in the churning. However, this strategy of the asurs worked against them. As the manthan began, poisonous fumes coming with breath from the million heads of Vasuki caused much distress among the Asurs. 

As the churning began, the great Mandrachal mountain began sinking into the ocean, pulling with it the devs and asurs. Realizing that the sinking of Mount Mandrachal would create a great deluge in the ocean which would engulf the entire universe, Lord Vishnu took the form of a giant tortoise, Kurma, and lifted Mandrachal on his back. This was Lord Vishnu's second avtar in our known universe. Supported by Vishnu's Kurma avtar, the churning of the ocean began. As the churning intensified, the first thing that emerged from the bottom of the ocean was Halahal, the most dangerous poison in the universe with the capability to destroy entire creation. Both the devs and asurs were terrified expecting imminent destruction. However, Lord Shiv came to the rescue of the entire creation. Out of compassion for living beings, Shiv swallowed the poison in an act of self-sacrifice. However, his consort Parvati who was looking on, terrified at the thought of his impending death, choked his neck with both her hands and prevented the poison from descending into his body. Thus the poison was stuck in Shiva's throat with nowhere to go, and it was so potent that it changed the color of Shiva's neck to blue. For this reason, he is also called Nilakant (blue necked). 

Once again the manthan progressed and fourteen ratnas (treasures) emerged one after the other. These the devs and asurs divided among themselves. These included Goddess Lakshmi, various Apsaras, Varuni (goddess of alcohol), Kamdhenu (the all wish granting divine cow), Airavat, Uchhaishravas (the divine 7-headed horse), Kaustubh ( the most valuable jewel in the world), Parijat (the divine flowering tree with blossoms that never fade or wilt), Sharanga (a divine bow) and Balchandra (the moon which adorned Shiva's head). In the end emerged Dhanwantri, the doctor of the devs, carrying amrit in a kalash (pot). Seeing Dhanwantri holding the desired amrit, both the devs and asurs forgot their pact and started fighting among themselves. In the epic battle that followed, the asurs defeated the devs and seized the kalash containing the amrit for their own consumption.During the battle, four drops of amrit spilled from the kalash and fell finally on four spots on earth - Prayag (Allahabad), Haridwar, Ujjain and Nasik. This legend is the basis for the belief that these places acquired a certain mystical power and spirituality.

Seeing the devs defeated in their purpose, Vishnu transformed himself into the most beautiful woman, the divine enchantress Mohini, and approached the asurs. The asurs were enraptured by the beauty of Mohini and readily handed over the kalash to her for distribution. Mohini then sat the asurs in line on one side and the devs on the other. She then walked down the line giving a portion from the kalash in her hand alternatively to the seated devs and the asurs. However, while she gave a portion of amrit to each dev, when she turned towards the asurs, she replaced the amrit kalash with one containing madira (wine) and gave that to the seated asur. The enraptured asurs did not notice the change. 

Only one asur, Rahuketu, seated down the line saw what Mohini was upto. His entrapment by her beauty was shattered and he saw the true form of Vishnu behind his facade as Mohini. Rahuketu, who was a shape shifter, then transformed himself into a dev and went and sat near the end of the devs line in between Surya and Chandra. As Mohini poured amrit for Rahuketu, Chandra and Surya through their light saw Rahuketu's true form and shouted out to Vishnu as a warning. as Rahuketu ran away from the assembly, Vishnu transformed himself into his true form and throwing his sudarshan chakra cut off the head of the asur. However, the amrit had already made its way into the body of Rahuketu and so he could not die. From that day, his head was called Rahu and body was called Ketu who became planets later.

With the nectar inside, the devs regained their original splendour and strength and they were able to conquer the asurs, who had to flee to the netherworld.

Tuesday, March 6, 2012

Vishunu's Matsya Avtar - Our Universe's First Saviour

Over the existence of our current universe, Lord Vishnu, the protector of the Universe, has taken 10 avtars, or incarnations, to reestablish Dharma and for the salvation of the good and the destruction of evil. Of these ten avtars, Matsya (fish) avtar was the first. In this avtar Vishnu, protecting the seeds of creation from the last universe, heralded the creation of the current Universe and the beginning of a new day in the life of Brahma.

Lets hear the story now.

The day was coming to an end and Brahma was tired. Soon it would be time for him to sleep and the universe which would have lasted for the day (4.3 billion human years) would come to its end. Only the Veds, eternal and outside the Cycle of Creation, would persist. They would lodge safely inside Brahma's body while he sleeps through the night (another 4.3 billion human years) and would be given back to the universe in the next Cycle of Creation.

At this moment Brahma gave an immense yawn, and the Veds slipped out of his lips. It so happened that an asur (demon) named Hayagriv lurked around watching Brahma. Hayagriv had a longstanding desire to become immortal and was observing Brahma for any such opportunity. As the Vedas flowed out of Brahma's lips, the cunning asur immediately realized that the eternal nature of the Veds would also make him eternal. He immediately swallowed the Veds and dived into the ocean and hid in its utmost depth.

The loss of Veds brought about a crisis of catastrophic proportions. With the universe coming to its closure and pralay approaching, without the Veds Brahma would not have the means to recreate the universe and the cycle of creation and destruction would be broken. Realizing the problem, Vishnu, the protector of the universe, decided to pursue this trouble-making asur to the depths of the ocean and retrieve the Veds. Vishnu also decided that in the process of retreiving the Veds, he would find the next Manu for the cycle of creation. Manu acts like a cosmic warden to oversee the creation and spread of life in the world and in each cycle of creation, 14 Manu come to be one after the other till the universe gets destroyed at the end of the day of Brahma.

During those days, a great river flowed down the Malay mountains into the land of Dravida. On its shores stood king Satyavrat offering prayers to Lord Vishnu. As he cupped his hands to collect water from the river, a Shaphari (a small carp) swam in to his hands. The little fish begged the noble king to save it from the big fishes in the river. Satyavrat, surprised by a talking fish and overcome by pity, took the fish to his palace and put it in a pot. However, the fish outgrew the pot in minutes and had to be shifted in a larger vessel. No matter the size of the vessel Satyavrat found, the fish outgrew it in moments. The king shifted the fish to a pond, then a lake and then finally to the ocean. In the process Satyavrat realized that the fish was none other than Lord Vishnu. When he released it in the ocean, the king prayed to Lord Vishnu and requested him to show his true form. Then Vishnu came infront of Satyavrat in his true form and told him of the nearing pralay. Vishnu asked Satyavrat to go along with his wife Niharika and collect prototypes of the entire flora and fauna on the earth over the next seven days. On the seventh day pralay would come. Then a boat would come to Satyavrat and Niharika, and along with the Saptarishis (Seven Eternal Sages) they would save the prototypes of all lifeforms by this boat. Having given these instructions, Vishnu took the form of matsya and dived into the ocean looking for Hayagriv.

Hayagriv had hidden himself in the dark depths of the ocean in a huge shankh (conch). As Vishnu swam in the darkness, his body glowing in a golden light, the hiding place of the asur was soon revealed. In a raging battle that went on for the next few days, Hayagriv was torn to pieces and Vishnu's matsya avtar reclaimed the Veds from his body.

In the meantime on the seventh day, as the waters began to submerge the world and creation came to an end, a large boat appeared near the high ground where Satyavrat and his wife stood with the Saptarishis and the prototypes of all life forms on earth. By the time all the beings flocked into the boat Lord Vishnu's Matsya avtar arrived at the spot glowing with a golden light. It was the only illumination available as darkness had fallen across the cosmos and torrential rain had begun, creating a huge deluge of water that would sweep away the tired old creation. Satyavrat tied the boat to the horn of Vishnu's Matsya form using Vasuki, king of the serpents as a rope. Then Vishnu towed the boat across the cosmic deluge for the entire night while Brahma slept (equivalent to one cycle of creation and 4.3 billion human years). Over the night Vishnu also educated Satyavrat and the Saptarishis on the various problems of human existence and on the true knowledge of Brahman. When it was time for the new cycle of creation begin, Vishnu passed the Veds back to Brahma and these remnants of life from the last universe became the starting seeds of creation in the next.

And so it came to be that Vishnu's Matsya avtar became the first protector of creation in our current universe.

Friday, February 24, 2012

The Story of Creation: The Beginning, or one of the beginnings

Before the beginning there was only Brahman. Brahman has no beginning and no end, no shape , no form, but is the basis of all forms and matter, is eternal, timeless and beautiful beyond description.

From the Brahman emerged a Great Egg, Hiranyagarbha. Immense in size and yet minuscule to the Brahman. Resplendent, brilliant and indestructibly. From this Hiranyagarbha of the Brahman arose the true creator of the universe, Lord Brahma.

With the other remains of the Hiranyagarbha, Brahma created the universe which is created, destroyed and re-created in an eternal cycle. Each new universe, lasts for a day in the life of Brahma (4,320,000,000 human years). Then the universe folds back into Brahma, who then in a period of maha-pralay sleeps for a night (equal to a day for Brahma), wakes up and re-creates the universe. This cycle of maha-srijan and maha-pralay lasts of 100 Brahma years (311 trillion, 40 billion human years). The life span of the current Lord Brahma then ends and he returns back into the Brahman.

A 100 Bramha years later, a new Hiranyagarbha merges from the Brahman and a new Lord Brahma is born. And so the cycle of creation and destruction continues eternally.

In each day of srijan, Lord Brahma creates 14 Manus one after the other. Thus there are 14 generations of Manu in each universe. When Manu perishes at the end of his life, Brahma creates the next Manu and the cycle continues until all fourteen Manus and the Universe perish by the end of Bramha's day.Manu creates the world, and all its species during that period of time, each Manvantara lasts the lifetime of a Manu, upon whose death, Brahma creates another Manu to continue srishti. Each Mahavanta consists of 71 Chaturyug (Mahayug) and each Chaturyugconsists of four yugas or ears - Satya yug (1,728,000 human years), Treta yug (1,296,000 human years), Dwapar yug (864,000 human years) and Kali yug (432,000 human years). Each Manvantara follows a Sandhi Kal during which the entire world is submerged in water.

We stand here today, in these concentric cycles of srijan and pralay, in the first day of the 51st year in the life of the current Brahma. 6 Manvantaras, 27 Mahayugas and the satya, treta and dwapar yug of the 28th Mahayug have already passed. 155 trillion years have passed since the present Brahma took up the task of creation. We are now in the Kali yug which started in 3104 BC, when Krishna, the last manifestation of Vishnu departed from the world.

It will be the endeavor of this blog to look back from here, across the four yugas and beyond, and through myths, epics and stories try to stitch together our story, the story of Manu's children, the story of Bharatvarsh.